Tomorrow I will teach at the graduate course ‘Design and analysis of clinical research’. My part is to introduce the concept of confounding which i demonstrate through the general idea of ‘confusing of effects’. Perhaps a bit ‘oldskool’, but it works as a nice introduction to the concept without a direct confrontation with DAGs etc, especially since it helps to think in ways to prevent / solve this problem in data analyses. What ‘arrow’ in the classic confounding triangle can be removed?
I also go into the concept of ceteris paribus, which is further explored through examples of IV analyses. These examples can be historical (Boylston and inoculation) or recent (mendelian randomisation on CRP and CVD disease).
Slides are present in the presentations section of this website.